Dr. Sathish Amirthalingam, B.Pharm., M.Pharm., Ph.D., PGDHM., is a clinical pharmacist from India and currently working in International Medical University, Malaysia. He was a state first and distinction research scholar in Post-Graduation level. He has a teaching and professional experience of 13 years in the field of pharmacy. He received 6 awards from various bodies from pharmacy fields including state and national levels for best research paper and research project. He had written 2 books in pharmacy field like clinical pharmacy and pathophysiology for pharmacy students. He has published 21 national and international papers, 2 copyright of his innovative clinical software and he has presented 18 papers in national and international conferences. He has guided 4 under graduate, 8 post graduate projects and he is guiding 4 more under graduate projects currently. He also associated with life member in various professional bodies like IPA, IHPA and he was a member of board of studies in Dept. of pharmacology, S. P. University.
Topical antibacterial drugs are generally used to treat superficial bacterial infections. In Malaysia, topical antibacterial drugs are mostly available as over-the-counter (OTC) products that enable the patients to gain access easily. Since indiscriminate use of topical antibacterial drugs had been recognized as a factor to drive antibacterial resistances, the roles of community pharmacists (CPs) are vital to ensure the appropriate use of these medications. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the perceptions and experiences of CPs in Kedah state, Malaysia on the dispensing of topical antibacterial drugs. A cross-sectional study involving a pre-validated questionnaire was conducted in community pharmacies within Kedah state, Malaysia. 53.4% of CPs in Kedah state perceived that topical antibacterial is not necessary for every topical bacterial infection. Patients’ information gathering and patient counselling were agreed to be important. Fusidic acid was the most frequently dispensed topical antibacterial drug while superficial wound was reported to be the most frequently encountered topical bacterial infection. 12.60% of CPs encountered antibacterial resistance cases but none of them reported. The drug that was having resistance issue was identified to be Neomycin. CPs in Kedah state generally had the right perceptions on the dispensing of topical antibacterial drugs. However, their knowledge on the rational use of topical antibacterial drugs and vigilance on the antibacterial resistance issue should be improved. Nevertheless, vigilance of CPs on antibacterial resistance issue were low. Thus, more training and educational programmes should be implemented to promote rational antibiotic use and improve CPs’ vigilances on antibacterial resistance issues.
Ms N. A. Sanjeewani has completed B Pharm degree and MS in Biotechnology from University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. She is a Lecturer (probationary) of Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University, Sri Lanka. She is young and energetic researcher and currently carrying out a research project on “Determination of hypoglycemic activity and formulation of a tablet using leaf extract of Adenanthera pavonina”. Her immediate goal is to pursue a PhD in Pharmaceutical Sciences from a US University.Ms N. A. Sanjeewani has completed B Pharm degree and MS in Biotechnology from University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. She is a Lecturer (probationary) of Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University, Sri Lanka. She is young and energetic researcher and currently carrying out a research project on “Determination of hypoglycemic activity and formulation of a tablet using leaf extract of Adenanthera pavonina”. Her immediate goal is to pursue a PhD in Pharmaceutical Sciences from a US University.
Emulsions are made by the agitation of the pure immiscible liquids and those are very unstable and break rapidly to the bulk phase. Such emulsions stabilize by addition of surface active material which protects the newly form drops from re coalescence. Formation of nano droplets occurs when correct compositions of water, hydrocarbon, surfactant, and co-surfactant are mixed in the right sequence. Nano emulsion drug delivery system is a popular application to enhance the solubility and bioavailability of lipophilic drugs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of an emulsion containing VCO as the oil phase and Tween 20® as the surfactant. Primary emulsions were prepared in different ratios of oil, water and surfactant. To the resulting mixture water was added drop by drop while mixing with the aid of magnetic stirrer. Secondary homogenization was done by applying high shear homogenization. Stability evaluation was done for 60 days after the formulation of 12 different formulae. The formulations were observed visually for phase separation, sedimentation, creaming and flocculation. Centrifugation tests were performed for visually stable formulations. Most stable formulation throughout the study period was with oil 32 % (w/w), surfactant 32 % (w/w) and water 36 % (w/w) and particle size of that formula is 484.25 nm. It was highlighted from this study VCO can be used to formulate nano emulsion for transdermal drug delivery system and it shows good stability. Using VCO in emulsion system is a new delivery method. This formulation can be used as an alternative system for preparation of nano emulsion which is a good carrier of several active ingredients for transdermal drug delivery that can minimize several side effects upon oral administration, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.